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Keywords Results

Alginate biosynthesis

Protein involved in the synthesis of alginate. Alginate is an exopolysaccharide in the cell walls of brown algae and in the capsular material of certain strains of Pseudomonas and Azotobacter, in which it provides a protective barrier against host immune defenses and antibiotics.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (893)

Alkaloid metabolism

Protein involved in a biochemical reaction with alkaloids, a group of nitrogenous organic molecules (mostly heterocyclic) usually found in plants. Various alkaloids have toxic or medical properties, such as caffeine, morphine and nicotine.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (190)

Alkylphosphonate uptake

Protein involved in alkylphosphonate uptake. Certain bacteria such as Escherichia coli can use alkylphosphonates as a phosphorus source.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (5)


Protein that stimulates the production of, and reacts with, antibodies (IgE) thus creating an allergic reaction (immediate-type hypersensitivity). Examples are pollen allergens from plants, venom allergens from insects, dust-mite allergens, and animal hair allergens.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (812)

Allosteric enzyme

Enzyme whose activity is modified by the noncovalent binding of an allosteric effector at a site other than the active site. This binding mediates conformational changes, altering its catalytic or binding properties.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (62,256)

Alpha-amylase inhibitor

Protein that inhibits alpha-amylase, an enzyme that catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (610)

Alport syndrome

Protein which, if defective, causes Alport syndrome, an hereditary disorder characterized by a progressive glomerulonephritis leading to end-stage renal disease, often associated with sensorineural hearing loss and ocular abnormalities.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (8)

Alternative initiation

Protein for which at least two isoforms exist due to the usage of alternative initiation codons in the same mRNA (the resulting isoforms differ in their N-terminus if they are in frame).

Category: Coding sequence diversity · UniProtKB (937)

Alternative promoter usage

Protein for which at least two isoforms exist due to the alternative usage of promoters.

Category: Coding sequence diversity · UniProtKB (295)

Alternative splicing

Protein for which at least two isoforms exist due to distinct pre-mRNA splicing events.

Category: Coding sequence diversity · UniProtKB (23,654)

Alzheimer disease

Protein which, if defective, causes Alzheimer disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy, senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuropil threads. Early-onset forms also occurr.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (17)

Amelogenesis imperfecta

Protein which, if defective, causes amelogenesis imperfecta, a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the dental enamel. The enamel may be hypoplastic, hypomineralized or both, and affected teeth may be discoloured, sensitive or prone to disintegration either pre-eruption or post-eruption. In the hypoplastic type of amelogenesis imperfecta, the enamel is of normal hardness but does not develop to normal thickness. In the hypomineralized type, the enamel is of normal thickness but opaque or yellowish white without lustre on newly erupted teeth; it is so soft that it is lost soon after eruption. Amelogenesis imperfecta occasionally occurs in conjunction with other dental, oral and extra-oral features.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (21)


Peptide which is posttranslationally modified by C-terminal amidation. The amino acid to be modified is almost always followed by a glycine, which provides the amide group. In a first reaction step the glycine is oxidized to form alpha-hydroxy-glycine. The oxidized glycine cleaves into the C-terminally amidated peptide and an N-glyoxylated peptide. C-terminal amidation is essential to the biological activity of many neuropeptides and hormones. In a few cases alpha-oxidative cleavage of an amino acid other than glycine has been observed. All such cases are additionally annotated with the word "atypical" in the feature description.

Category: PTM · UniProtKB (3,988)

Amino-acid biosynthesis

Protein involved in the synthesis of naturally-occuring amino acids. In addition to their use for protein biosynthesis, they are the precursors of many molecules such as purines, pyrimidines, histamines, adrenaline and melanin.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (1,526,460)

Amino-acid transport

Protein involved in the transport of amino acids.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (54,028)

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

Enzyme that activates an amino acid for translation by forming an aminoacyladenylate intermediate and then links this activated amino acid to the corresponding tRNA molecule (amino acid-tRNA, aminoacyl-tRNA). In general, a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthase is available for each amino acid.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (682,398)


Enzyme that catalyzes the removal of amino acids from the N-terminus of peptides and proteins.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (247,735)


Enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an alpha-amino group from an amino acid to an alpha-keto acid. The amino group is usually covalently bound by the prosthetic group pyridoxal phosphate.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (549,307)

Ammonia transport

Protein involved in the transport of ammonia/ammonium. Ammonia is an excellent nitrogen source for many bacteria, fungi, and plants, but it can be cytotoxic, especially for animal cells at high concentration. Its transport across cellular membranes is thus of high biological relevance. Ammonia (NH3) is a weak base and exists predominantly as the ammonium ion (NH4+) in biological fluids.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (26,882)

Amphibian defense peptide

Protein specifically found in the skin of animals belonging to the vertebrate class amphibia, that includes frogs, toads, newts, salamanders and worm-like apoda. The skins of anuran amphibians, in addition to mucous glands, contain highly specialized poison glands, which, in reaction to stress or attack, exude a complex noxious species-specific cocktail of biologically active molecules. These secretions often contain a plethora of peptides such as neuropeptides and hormones. The frog dermatous glands also synthesize and store an extraordinarily rich variety of wide-spectrum antimicrobial peptides that are released onto the outer layer of the skin to provide an effective and fast-acting defense against harmful microorganisms.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (3,017)


Proteins which may form wide, insoluble, unbranched filaments possessing a cross-beta sheet quaternary structure, where the beta sheets are oriented perpendicular to the fibre axis. Amyloid fibrils may be involved in abnormal protein depositions, or amyloidosis, such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. Functional amyloids, found in a wide range of organism, from bacteria to mammals are involved in diverse functions such as biofilm formation, formation of aerial hyphae, long-term memory or regulation of melanin biosynthesis.

Category: Cellular component · UniProtKB (1,758)


Protein which, if defective, causes amyloidosis, a vast group of diseases defined by the accumulation of amyloid in tissues. Amyloidoses are classified according to clinical signs, biochemical type of amyloid protein involved, and the extent of amyloid deposition (generalized or localized). Most amyloidoses are multisystemic diseases affecting several organs or systems. Mainly affected organs are the kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, skin, peripheral nerves and eyes, but any organ can be affected. The most frequent forms are primary amyloidosis, also known as light-chain immunoglobulin amyloidosis (AL), reactive or inflammatory amyloidosis, also known as acquired amyloidosis (AA), and transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). Localized amyloidosis affecting the brain is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, trisomy 21, and prion diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalitis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia). In prion diseases the amyloid precursor is the prion protein.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (32)


Protein found in the amyloplast, a colorless plant plastid that forms and stores starch. Amyloplasts are found in many tissues, particularly in storage tissues.

Category: Cellular component · UniProtKB (1,685)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Protein which, if defective, causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. ALS is characterized by muscular weakness and atrophy.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (32)


Protein involved in angiogenesis, the sprouting or splitting of capillaries from pre-existing vasculature. Angiogenesis plays an important role for example during embryonic development, normal growth of tissues and maintenance of the normal vasculature, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (802)

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