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Keywords Results

Keywords
2Fe-2S

Protein which contains at least one 2Fe-2S iron-sulfur cluster: 2 iron atoms complexed to 2 inorganic sulfides and 4 sulfur atoms of cysteines from the protein.

Category: Ligand · UniProtKB (157,607)

3D-structure

Protein, or part of a protein, whose three-dimensional structure has been resolved experimentally (for example by X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy) and whose coordinates are available in the PDB database. Can also be used for theoretical models.

Category: Technical term · UniProtKB (46,359)

3Fe-4S

Protein which contains at least one 3Fe-4S iron-sulfur cluster: 3 iron atoms complexed to 4 inorganic sulfides and 3 sulfur atoms of cysteines from the protein. In a number of iron-sulfur proteins, the 4Fe-4S cluster can be reversibly converted by oxidation and loss of one iron ion to a 3Fe-4S cluster.

Category: Ligand · UniProtKB (31,962)

4Fe-4S

Protein which contains at least one 4Fe-4S iron-sulfur cluster: 4 iron atoms complexed to 4 inorganic sulfides and 4 sulfur atoms of cysteines from the protein. In a number of iron-sulfur proteins, the 4Fe-4S cluster can be reversibly converted by oxidation and loss of one iron ion to a 3Fe-4S cluster.

Category: Ligand · UniProtKB (837,908)

Abscisic acid biosynthesis

Protein involved in the synthesis of abscisic acid (ABA) (5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid). ABA is a plant hormone which play a role in many aspects of plant growth, development and cellular signaling (e.g. seed dormancy, seed maturation, vegetative growth and responses to various environmental stimuli such as stomatal closure during drought). This phytohormone can be synthesized from farnesyl diphosphate (direct C15 pathway) or from 9-cis-violaxanthine (indirect C40 pathway).

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (232)

Abscisic acid signaling pathway

Protein involved in the abscisic acid (ABA) (5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6,trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-y1)-3-methylpenta-2,4-dienoic acid) signaling pathway (e.g. transport and signal transduction) that regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and cellular signaling (e.g. seed dormancy, seed maturation, vegetative growth and responses to various environmental stimuli such as stomatal closure during drought). This phytohormone can be synthesized from farnesyl diphosphate (direct C15 pathway) or from 9-cis-violaxanthine (indirect C40 pathway).

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (192)

Acetoin biosynthesis

Protein involved in the synthesis of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone). Acetoin is a component of the butanediol cycle (butanediol fermentation) in microorganisms.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (3,710)

Acetoin catabolism

Protein involved in the degradation of acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone). Acetoin is a component of the butanediol cycle (butanediol fermentation) in microorganisms.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (681)

Acetylation

Protein which is posttranslationally modified by the attachment of at least one acetyl group; generally at the N-terminus.

Category: PTM · UniProtKB (70,996)

Acetylcholine receptor inhibiting toxin

Toxin which interferes with the function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). The nAChR is a postsynaptic membrane protein that undergoes an extensive conformational change upon binding to acetylcholine, leading to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. These toxins are mostly found in snake and cone snail venoms.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (575)

Actin capping

Protein that binds to the free end of the actin filament and thereby blocks further addition of subunits.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (5,532)

Actin-binding

Protein which binds to actin, and thereby can modulate the properties and/or functions of the actin filament.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (73,225)

Actin-dependent inwards viral transport

Viral protein that allows the active transport of viral material along actin filaments toward the intracellular replication sites during virus entry. This transport probably involves motor proteins like myosins or polymerization/depolymerization reactions as a driving force. Viruses such as poliovirus may utilize this type of intracellular transport.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (4)

Activation of host autophagy by virus

Viral protein involved in the activation of host autophagy. Autophagy is a major intracellular pathway in the delivery of cytoplasmic material to lysosomes for degradation. It is also essential for the removal of pathogenic protein aggregates from the cell during infection. Although autophagy is clearly important for antiviral immune response, it can also be activated by viruses and serves as platform for viral replication. Some viruses such as poliovirus, use the autophagic pathway as a nonlytic mechanism for viral release.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (16,563)

Activation of host caspases by virus

Viral protein involved in the activation of host cell apoptosis by acting on host caspases. While many viruses encode protein that inhibit apoptosis, viruses can also use apoptosis to their advantage to suppress immune response or to disseminate. Therefore, some viral proteins are able to cleave or activate caspases in order to promote apoptosis.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (43)

Activation of host NF-kappa-B by virus

Viral protein involved in the activation of host NF-kappa-B. This protein is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is present in almost all cell types and is involved in many biological processed such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. Several viruses have developed strategies to activate the NF-kappa-B pathway in order to promote viral replication and prevent virus-induced apoptosis.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (5,885)

Activator

Protein that positively regulates either the transcription of one or more genes, or the translation of mRNA.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (159,902)

Acute phase

Protein involved in acute phase, a response of the vertebrate body to insults, infections, immunological reactions or inflammatory processes; characterised by redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor) and sometimes loss of function.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (680)

Acyltransferase

Enzyme catalyzing the transfer of acyl- (RCO-) groups.

Category: Molecular function · UniProtKB (1,032,225)

Adaptive immunity

Protein involved in adaptive immunity. Vertebrates can develop a broad and almost infinite repertoire of antigen-specific receptors, which allows vertebrates to recognize almost any potential pathogen or toxin and to mount antigen-specific responses to it. Two types of adaptive immunity systems have evolved in vertebrates in order to generate immune receptor diversity. The jawed vertebrates strategy uses the V(D)JC recombination to achieve combinatorial diversity of immunoglobulin-based B cell receptors and T cell receptors. The jawless vertebrate strategy uses the somatic rearrangements of variable leucine-rich cassettes in the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The hallmarks of an adaptive immune system is the production of antigen-specific recognition receptor by somatic gene rearrangement. The long life of some antigen-primed cytotoxic lymphocytes and plasma cells provide protective memory to prevent reinvasion.

Category: Biological process · UniProtKB (1,142)

ADP-ribosylation

Protein which is posttranslationally modified by the attachment of at least one ADP-ribosyl group.

Category: PTM · UniProtKB (5,122)

Age-related macular degeneration

Protein which, if defective, causes age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the most common cause of irreversible vision loss in the developed world. In most patients, the disease is manifest as ophthalmoscopically visible yellowish accumulations of protein and lipid (known as drusen) that lie beneath the retinal pigment epithelium and within an elastin-containing structure known as Bruch's membrane. ARMD is likely to be a mechanistically heterogeneous group of disorders, and the specific disease mechanisms that underlie the vast majority of cases are currently unknown. However, a number of studies have suggested that both genetic and environmental factors are likely to play a role.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (14)

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome

Protein which, if defective, causes Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, a genetic disorder that is phenotypically similar to in utero viral infection. The disease is characterized by severe neurological dysfunction in infancy, leading to progressive microcephaly, spasticity, dystonic posturing, profound psychomotor retardation and often death in early childhood.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (7)

AIDS

Protein encoded by the human immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1 or HIV-2, which are the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This disease is characterized by a severe defect of cell-mediated immunity which is often accompanied by cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, as well as secondary infections such as tuberculosis.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (518)

Albinism

Protein which, if defective, causes albinism, a genetically determined or environmentally induced absence of pigmentation in animals normally pigmented. This can lead for example to lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eyes.

Category: Disease · UniProtKB (33)

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